His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. TOS4. The sixty five-year-old prince ascended the throne under the name of Bahadur Shah. During the rule of Alamgir II, the East India Company fought the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal. The Mughal Empire was the first large empire in India since the Gupta Empire (nearly a millennium years of difference); it was made up of many ethnicities, a variety of geographic localities, and hundreds of nobles and their principalities. This was a severe blow to the culture and history of Muslim India. These wars of succession were also responsible for the decline of the Mughal and Muslim Empire. However, in practice, the Carnatic was virtually independent under its nawab. Aurangzeb inherited a large empire, yet he adopted a policy of extending it further to the farthest geographical … Lack of Military Efficiency: Military efficiency was the hallmark of the Muslim rule in India. Let us view the causes that hastenedthe fall of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb.Aurangzeb’s responsibility:Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the empire. The question focussed on the reasons why the Mughal Empire declined. The Mughal Empire was the first large empire in India since the Gupta Empire (nearly a millennium years of difference); it was made up of many ethnicities, a variety of geographic localities, and hundreds of nobles and their principalities. Possibly the Marathas alone possessed the strength to fill the political vacuum created by the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. He lost friendship and loyalty with the Rajputs. He put his nominee, Anwar-ud-din, on the throne of Arcot. The idea of the ‘modern’ has come from the West. ANS: The policies of Aurangzeb were one of the main reasons for the decline of Mughal Empire. Causes of decline of Mughal Empire. Wars of Succession: The Mughals did not follow any law of succession like the law of primogeniture. By this time, the Mara­thas had extended their influence up to Delhi. He was controlled by the Sayyid brothers who were the real authority behind Mughal power. They point out that he reintroduced non-Muslims tax Jizya. The reasons for their downfall were as under: History of civilizations shows that every civilization faces challenges and if it lacks the competence and energy to take in the challenges it cannot survive. All rights reserved. The decline of the Mughal Empire was due to social, economic, political and institutional factors. They were inefficient generals and incapable of suppressing revolts. 2. [7] (J2002/P1/1b) Examiner Comments: Part (b) caused a few problems. The war of independence resulted in formal end of Muslim Empire and the East India Company took the reign of the subcontinent. For the British, this battle was of immense significance. The Maratha state at that time was ruled by Tara Bai, the queen regent. One thousand years of Muslim rule had brought economic prosperity, coherence and benevolence like Taj Mahal and other historical monuments but in the end the empire was unable to resolve the challenges. Alivardi Khan did not permit English and French trading companies to fortify their possessions in Bengal. The absence of a strong ruler, an efficient bureaucracy and a capable army had made the Mughal Empire weak. The period of the Great Mughals, which began in 1526 with Babur’s accession to the throne, ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Their teachings were based upon oneness of God, following Prophets and abiding by the Quranic injunctions and cardinal principles of Islam. In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb. Taking advantage of the growing weakness of Mughal power, the Rajput states became virtually independent. Thus, anarchy prevailed all over India, many governors and Subedars declared themselves sovereign, the Marathas and Sikhs rose their heads and became the key players of India. It is associated with the development of science, reason, liberty, equality and democracy. As a result, the distant provinces became independent. Balaji Vishwanath concentrated all power in his own hands and became the real ruler of the Marathas. Which Mughal ruler in Indian history as “Shah-e.- Bekhabar?” Related posts: What are the main causes for the Downfall of the Mughal Empire in India? The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali and the consequent decline of Mughal power gave the Sikhs the opportunity to rise. But as the history shows that it is like a cycle and every empire have to fact its downfall and Muslims were no exception. With the decline of the Mughal Empire a number of provinces seceded from the empire and several independent states came into existence. Delhi. They lost thousands of soldiers along with their very good generals. Nadir Shah carried with him the Kohinoor diamond and the Peacock throne of Shah Jahan. The condition of India with its incompetent rulers, weak administration and poor military strength attracted foreign invaders. Give reasons for your Answer. The subah of Awadh comprised Benaras and some districts near Allahabad. Nadir Shah’s invasion gave a crushing blow to the already tottering Mughal Empire and hastened the process of its disintegration. He was controlled by nobles and could manage to rule only for one year. The Peshwa died in June 1761.The Battle of Panipat destroyed the possibility of the Marathas emerging as the strongest power in India. Mohammad Shah’s kingdom was practically confined to Delhi and its neighbourhood. 25 Important questions of Shershah Suri 24 Important Questions on Aurangzeb 18 Important Questions on the Bahmani Kingdom 3 important Economic Conditions of Mughal Empire in India Bahadur Shah followed a policy of compromise and conciliation and tried to conciliate the Rajputs, the Marathas, the Bundelas, the Jats and the Sikhs. Causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire: 1. He re-imposed the hated jiziya on the Hindus. In the end, in 1803, Delhi itself was occupied by the British army and the proud of Mughal Emperor was reduced to the status of a mere pensioner of a foreign power. Each period was born out of the previous one. He also erected observatories with accurate and advanced instruments at Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura. The Reasons Behind the Decline of the Mughal Empire Essay 2751 Words | 12 Pages. Different factions of nobles supported rival claimants to the throne in order to occupy high posts. Shahuji appointed Balaji Vishwanath as his Peshwa or Prime Minister in 1713. In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb.There were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty. The Mughals did not follow any law of succession like the law of primogeniture. Shah Jahan’s zeal for construction had depleted the treasury. 1) Weak ruler after Aurangzeb 2) Instability in different parts of the empire. The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali resulted in further drainage of wealth. Concepts covered in Class 8 the Trail History and Civics for ICSE Middle School chapter 5 Decline of the Mughal Empire are The Decline of the Mughal Empire, Rise of Independent/Regional Kingdoms. But the Rajput chiefs continued to be divided as before. Ahmad Shah Abdali’s invasion further weakened the Mughal Empire. Candidates generally were able to reach level 3 but it was dependent upon them explaining why the reason given caused the decline. However, with Aurangzeb Alamgir the last of the “great moguls” (although he arguably sowed the seeds for the empire's eventual decline) in 1707, the Mughal Empire suffered poor leadership throughout the rest of its history. Aurangzeb failed to realise that the vast Mughal Empire depended on the willing support of the people. Nor did they firmly destroy the tendency of the East India Company to use force. The Afghans under the leadership Causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire: 1. ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. The Mughal Emperors lost their power and glory and their empire shrank to a few square miles around Delhi. Lots of money was spent in these military campaigns which had emptied the Mughal treasure. The death of Aurangzeb led the foundation of decline of the mighty Mughal Emperor and it was happen due to prolong war of succession between his three sons- Muazzam, Azam and Kam Baksh. After the death of the king, Hyder Ali captured the throne. He founded the Asaf Jah dynasty. When Aurangzeb died, the empire of the Mughals was the largest in India. Murshid Quli Khan (1717-27) and his successors Shuja-ud-Daula (1727-39) and Alivardi Khan (1739-1756) gave Bengal a long period of peace and stable administration. Most historians of the Mughal empire currently emphasize economic factors in their attempts to locate and measure the causes of imperial decline in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century India. Explain why the successors of Aurangzeb failed to prevent the decline of the Mughal Empire. After his death in 1748, Hyderabad became an easy prey to powerful neighbours. Aurang Zeb was the last Mughal emperor who kept the means of power in his hands and when he died the chaos interrupted his empire and a war of succession among his descendants proved disastrous of the Mughal glory. Aurangzeb's policies towards the decline of Mughal empire • Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Mohammad Shah was succeeded by a number of inefficient rulers Ahmad Shah (1748-1754), Alamgir II (1754-1759), Shah Alam II (1759-1806), Akbar II (1806-1837) and Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857). Causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire: 6. The fall of Mughal Empire was the end of the Muslim rule in the sub continent. European trading companies started interfering in the domestic politics of Hyderabad for their own selfish gains. This weakened the Mughal Empire, especially after Aurangzeb. They were forced to retreat to the Deccan. With the rise of the Marathas, Rajput influence began to decrease. There were a number of reasons for the Empire’s decline. Education and your well being, A list of written essays for CSS and PMS Exams, Learn about the FBR Post of Income Tax Inspector. The nobles, by siding with one contender or the other, increased their own power. Give reasons for your answer Q ‘The spread of Maratha power was the main reason for the decline of the Mughal Empire.’ Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. He died in 1748. Invasion of Ahmed Shah Abdali, during the reign of Muhammad Shah, proved fatal for crumbling Mughal Empire. As the Empire started to decline; it found itself at risk from invasion. This history is seen to conclude with the achievement of independence in 1947. Jahandar Shah who succeeded Bahadur Shah was weak and incompetent. According to Williamson, the decline of the Mughal Empire led to a decline in agricultural productivity, which drove up food prices, then nominal wages, and then textile prices, which led to India losing a share of the world textile market to Britain even before it had superior factory technology. Some says that he was intolerant and wanted to destroy other religions. All these three rulers gave encouragement to trade but maintained strict control over the foreign trading companies. Foreign invasions sapped the remaining strength of the Mughals and hastened the process of disintegration. Delhi looked deserted for days. Muslim Sufis and theologians worked hard to convert the people to Islam, which means the right path. Aurangzeb’s death was followed by a war of succession among his three sons. He established a strong administration, crushed the power of the big zamindars and brought about law and order in the country. The hallmark of the Sufis’ teachings was the liberal attitude and cosmopolitan culture presented to the natives of India. Aurangzeb was both a victim of circumstances and he also … The king was relegated to the background. REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE Aurangzeb’s responsibility: Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. And the Mughal Empire began to shrink and when Bahadar Shah, the last Mughal Empire, ascended to throne, he was merely a titular head. He conquered Punjab and marched towards Delhi. Following the death of Aurangzeb (1707), the Mughal empire declines. Taking advantage of the growing weakness of the central authority, Murshid Quli Khan became practically independent. He neglected the affairs of the state and never gave full support to able wazirs. there is lots of factor attribute for the decline of Mughal power in India. Bahadur Shah died in 1712. Yet, within about fifty years of his death, the Mughal Empire disintegrated. They thus got a foothold in Bengal. Maratha power reached its height under him. Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761) further extended the empire in different directions. An alternate way, then, is to characterise this period as the ‘colonial’. They had acted as pillars of support, but Aurangzeb’s policy turned them to bitter foes. Early in the 18th century, Mysore was ruled by a Hindu king. Nearly 28,000 soldiers were killed. Size of the Empire and Challenge from Regional Powers: The Later Mughal Rulers (1707 A.D.-1857 A.D.): Rise of independent states in the 18th century. The death of Aurangzeb is believed to have marked the beginning of the modern period. Balaji Vishwanath assigned separate areas to the Maratha sardars (chiefs) for the collection of levies of chauth and sardeshmukhi. The Marathas were completely defeated. But he soon became independent. Explain the reasons for the failure of the war of Independence 1857–58. This weakened the Mughal Empire… In 1761, during the reign of Shah Alam II, Ahmad Shah Abdali, the independent ruler of Afghanistan, invaded India. Let us view the causes that hastened the fall of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb. It was not the main reason. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the causes for decline and fall of Aurangzeb’s Mughal Empire. This weakened the Mughal Empire… Mughal treasury was empty because revenue had declined when serval far off provines like Deccan, Bengal and Oudh had Become Independent. CAT - College of Admission Tests. This was specially so because the nobles had become very powerful. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! Most of the Rajput states were involved in petty quarrels and civil wars. In the Third Battle of Panipat the Marathas were completely defeated. More In-depth knowledge about what you need. Consequently, each time a ruler died, a war of succession between the brothers for the throne started. Why this degradation took place is no mystery. His successors were known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Marathas prevail, gaining control of Delhi (the emperor being a nominal one). Mohammad Shah was easily defeated and imprisoned. But this decline could have been halted if the Muslim rulers paid heed to the modern knowledge, military warfare and unity among their ranks. Nor was it one of the major reasons. As is the case, the historians of all hues since the 18 Century have debated the causes of the decline of Mughal Empire. The Carnatic was one of the provinces of the Mughals in the Deccan and was under the authority of the Nizam of Hyderabad. Their ignorance of the situation in Europe proved costly. Content Guidelines 2. Analytical Reasoning with Explained Questions. Explain why the Mughal Empire declined following the reign of Aurangzeb. Privacy Policy3. Recent articles reiterate a standard set of tensions: those between monarch, military and service nobles (mansabdars), landholders (zamindars), and peasants. The Reasons Behind the Decline of the Mughal Empire Essay 2751 Words | 12 Pages. He became the ruler of Mysore when Hyder Ali it was a weak and divided state. Taking advantage of the weak rule of Mohammad Shah and the constant rivalry among the various factions of the nobility, some powerful and ambitious nobles established virtually independent states. Wars of Succession: The Mughals did not follow any law of succession like the law of primogeniture. He was a pensioner of East India Company. He established a virtually independent state but returned to Delhi during the reign of Emperor Mohammad Shah. When he tried to free himself from their control, he was killed by them. But Mohammad Shah was not equal to the task. The rise of independent states led to the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. But they lacked political vision and succumbed to British power. Decline of Mughal Empire Nov 2001 1.c: Was the in-fighting between Aurangzeb’s successors the most important reason for the collapse of the Mughal empire? It was March 4, 1707, a Jumma Day, in the fiftieth year of his reign when he was eighty-nine, Aurangzeb ‘Alamgir breathed his last after finishing his usual morning prayer. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Political Conditions During the Mughal Empire | Indian History, Decline and Disintegration of the Mughals in India, Main Causes for the Decline of the Mughal Empire in India, The Decline of the Mughal Empire | Indian History, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. There were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty. At the end of the 18th century Ranjit Singh, chief of the Sukercharia misl brought all the Sikh chiefs west of the river Sutlej under his control and established a powerful Sikh empire in the Punjab. He had also to face revolt from the Sikhs. Technical end of Mughal Empire meant to the end of 1000 years of glory and prestige for the Muslims of India. Muslim came in India as conquerors and established their rule in the sub-Continent. The history of India, as well as of the world, has been divided into three periods: ancient, medieval and modern. LEVEL 3: Explains the invasions of the Persians and Afghans OR other reasons [7–10] LEVEL 4: Explains the invasions of the Persians and Afghans AND other reasons [9–13] There were a number of reasons for the Empire’s decline. Q Briefly explain three reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire. Read this article to learn about the decline of Mughal Empire in India! The Sayyids helped Mohammad Shah, ascend the 18-year-old grandson of Bahadur Shah, to the throne. Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk was appointed Governor of Awadh by the Mughal Emperor. It was under the leadership of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhs that the community became a political and military force. The military, with which the earlier strong rulers carried on the conquest and extended the empire, had now become demoralized and inefficient. So Aurangzeb solely cannot be held responsible for the collapse of the Mughal Empire. But within a short span of time he made Mysore one of the leading Indian powers. But gradually each one developed its own distinctive characteristics. Shahuji, the grandson of Shivaji, who had been imprisoned by Aurangzeb, was released by Bahadur Shah in 1707. His successor Safdar Jang gave Awadh a long period of peace and prosperity. Bengal in the 18th century comprised Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. There were a number of other reasons that lead to the disintegration of the empire including weak successors, foreign invasions, vastness of the empire, fratricidal wars and final blow from the British. The authority of the Awadh rulers extended up to Rohil-khand, a territory to the east of Delhi. Consequently, each time a ruler died, a war of succession between the brothers for the throne started. Between 1765 and 1800 they brought the Punjab and Jammu under their control. The Mughal Empire practically broke up. The Mughal Empire, which had reached its zenith during the rule of Shah Jahan and his son, began to decline after the rule of Aurangzeb. Q 'The coming of the British was the main reason for the decline of the Mughal Empire'. The notion of decline envisages a … Shah Alam II granted the Dewani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company in 1765. The Marathas soon reached Delhi and offered their support to the Mughal emperor. He lost the support of the Rajputs who had contributed greatly to the strength of the Empire. However, the Nawabs of Bengal failed to build up a strong army and navy. Nadir Shah marched towards Delhi. The death of Aurangzeb led the foundation of decline of the mighty Mughal Emperor and it was happen due to prolong war of succession between his three sons- Muazzam, Azam and Kam Baksh. Asaf Jah ruled the Deccan with a firm hand, crushed the rebellious and powerful zamindars and established a strong administration. This period stretched on almost 1000 years. Aurangzeb was an ambitious military ruler. Some says that he was intolerant and wanted to destroy other religions. When his reign began, Mughal prestige among the people was still an important political force. Though Muslims were invaders in this land but they settled in India and mixed up in the native community. In 1724, he was reappointed Viceroy of the Deccan with the title of Asaf Jah. After his death, a steady stream of successful emperors took over, expanding the empire's territory in all directions. Muslims never separated themselves from the land and they made India their home. Murshid Quli Khan was the Diwan of Bengal under Aurangzeb. However, there were other reasons for the decline. Nadir Shah, the ruler of Persia, attacked Punjab in 1739. Muslims had always been in a minority but they maintained their capacity to rule this vast land. The battle between the two forces was fought in Panipat in January 1761. Afghan raider Ahmed Shah Abdali attacks India. By plundering a big city like Delhi, he got enormous wealth. Even if we can refer to different historical periods, in which changes occurred and distinguishing characteristics emerged, we cannot fix precise dates for any specific period. The wars with the Sikhs, the Marathas, the Jats and the Rajputs had drained the resources of the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb’s death marked the end of an era in Indian history. Image Source: c14608526.r26.cf2.rackcdn.com/A91D9F3E-BDD2-44A7-A1F1-6614AF4C11FD.jpg. Their rule was based upon the following three principles. Causes of decline of Mughal Empire During Aurangzeb’s reign. He imposed jaziya and forbade the celebrations of Hindu Festivals. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The Maratha defeat cleared the way for the rise of British power in India. Nadir Shah was a ferocious invader. He modernized the army and expanded his kingdom through conquests. They point out … The English, who were on the lookout for an opportunity to expand their territories, conquered the Sikh kingdom (1839-40). Hyderabad, Bengal, Awadh and Rohilkhand offered but nominal loyalty to the Mughal Emperor. No. Though illiterate, Hyder Ali was an efficient administrator. During his reign the Marathas and the Sikhs became more powerful. Historians are divided about Aurangzeb’s attitude towards religion. Do you agree or disagree? The Marathas were skilful Hindu guerrilla fighters who defeated a Mughal army in 1737 and took control of Delhi and eastwards towards Bengal. After Ranjit Singh’s death, there was confusion in the Sikh state. Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Amber (1681-1743) was a renowned Rajput ruler. Farrukhsiyar ascended the throne with the help of the Sayyid brothers who were popularly called the ‘king makers’. How Muslim Rulers Could Halt the Downfall? Aurangzeb could not tolerate the non-Muslims. Aurangzeb’s long wars in the south had further drained the exchequer. He was strong enough to emerge as a rival of the British. ANS: The policies of Aurangzeb were one of the main reasons for the decline of Mughal Empire. By 1760 they were the most powerful people in India and nothing could the Mughals do to stop it. It ended in the victory of the eldest brother, Prince Muazzam. A strong ruler could have saved the dynasty. Is ‘modern’ an adequate and acceptable term to describe this period of history? The State of Hyderabad was founded by Qamar-ud-din Siddiqi, who was appointed Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title of Nizam-ul- Mulk, by Emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1712. EntryTest.com is a free service for students seeking successful career. Main Reason for the Decline of the Mughal Power were the wards of succession among the princes and the fact that the later mughal rulers were incompetent and they were neither good commanders nor good statesmen. Mohammad Shah’s long reign of nearly 30 years (1719-1748 A.D.) was the last chance of saving the empire. The Mughal Empire had become too large to be controlled by any ruler from one centre i.e. If we use the term ‘modern’ for the period of British rule in India, we accept that these principles were introduced in India by the British. But the succession war after Aurangzeb’s death certainly did not help matters. Wars of Succession, which had been a regular feature among the Mughals, had become more acute after the death of Bahadur Shah. 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