Water the area immediately to activate the fertilizer. Plant a castor bean and then stand back. Also, cut off flower spikes when flowers have faded to encourage more blooms. At the base of the cutting, trim the stem directly below where the bottom leaf attaches, remove several sets of leaves above the new cut, leaving 1 to 2 sets of leaves above that, and place the stem in moist soil. Water Cuban Oregano when the top 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) of its soil becomes dry. This shows as leaves with faded color, burned or crisp leaf edges, and occasionally translucent patches on the leaf’s surface that can turn into holes. Do not replant in infected soil. For entertaining summer-filled color, you can simulate the effect of thousands of watermelon slices in your yard! 1-10 of 15 . The Vicks Plant Uses are as a decongestant in water or in petroleum jelly. Lighting: Bright diffused light. If you are pinching back older plants, you can use the cuttings to grow new plants. They creep in at night and feed, and may take up residence beneath your plants during the daytime. These varieties have leaves edged in yellow to pale green, with a deeper red hue covering the remainder of the leaf. Though it's known as Swedish ivy, this is not an ivy at all, but in the mint family. A high light area has over 300 ft. candles of light. Check both surfaces of the Cuban Oregano's leaves each time you water the plant. Also susceptible to fungal root and stem rot and downy mildew. Keep reading to get some indoor orchid care tips. Using a bucket of clean water, swish the roots around to dislodge any of the fungally-infected soil and wash it away. Plectranthus ‘Velvet Elvis’ After a 5 year breeding project, here's a notable improvement over 'Mona Lavender' with dramatically larger flowers and better habit. Plectranthus scutellarioides, ‘Black Dragon’. What’s your favorite of the hundreds of coleus varieties? If the central taproot has become rotten, the plant should be destroyed. Prune off any leaves which were damaged by mildew after treatment is done. If stem or root rot becomes apparent on your plants, prune off all signs of the rot, and transplant it to a new sterile potting soil. Epic Gardening occasionally links to goods or services offered by vendors to help you find the best products to care for plants. This must be considered if the frankincense plant is to be cultivated as a houseplant. Since coleus is shade-loving, plants which are grown in full sun conditions can experience scalding of the leaves. When you first plant your plant, water it until the soil is saturated. Lovely plant that is easy to grow. Provided they have proper growing conditions, it isn’t difficult to learn how to take care of orchid plants. Alternately, bring them indoors and provide indirect light for them in a warmer location. By comparison, Inky Toes has more of a blot-like pattern with a few short extensions of color from it. Genus: Plectranthus Plant Height: 1 to 3 feet Balanced liquid or slow release granular, 10-10-10 ideal. (Don't toss them out -- you can easily propagate them for more plants.) If the temperature begins dipping below 50 degrees, use a cold frame to keep them warm. Plectranthus amboinicus, ‘Coleus amboinicus’, ‘Mexican Mint’, ‘Cuban Oregano’, ‘Country Borage’, ‘French Thyme’, ‘Indian Mint’, ‘Spanish Thyme’. Ornamental Coleus Varieties (aka Plectranthus scutellarioides, Solenostemon scutellarioides, or Coleus blumei). Moreover, it can be a ground cover, semi shrub, or a vine in the hanging baskets. GalaxyHydro & Roleadro Review: Are These LEDs Worth It? Care of indoor orchid plants is easy once you learn how to grow them properly. Features Heat tolerance and ease of care are just a few of this attractive foliage plants attributes. Spray the oil thoroughly throughout the plant, being sure to coat both the tops and bottoms of leaves. Pinching the blooms off redirects the plant’s energy to leaf and plant growth instead of seed formation. Need to find another one since it doesn't enjoy cold winters. About coleus plants By WoS on October 31, 2017 Cultivation, General Care A plant with many names, Plectranthus amboinicus is commonly called Cuban Oregano and also bears the monikers Mexican Mint, Indian Borage and Caribbean Oregano. By midsummer, you'll have a huge (it can hit up to 20 feet) tropical plant sporting burgundy foliage. Intense colored leaves and intricate patterns mean that coleus can really bring a visual highlight to your container garden or shady garden space. By seed, it is easiest to use a seedling tray filled with potting soil and broadcast seed evenly across the surface. Plants should not be allowed to dry out. You caught me smelling this plant because most Plectranthus have incredible smells and is a member of the mint family. Add to Cart. Excellent for either container gardening or for adoring garden beds, they offer amazing color in partial shaded areas. Mona Lavender (Plectranthus Mona Lavender) is a relative of Swedish Ivy. Source: Scamperdale, Plectranthus barbatus var. Available in Kong Scarlet, Kong Lime Sprite, Kong Rose, or Kong Red variations, as well as a mix referred to as the Kong Empire Mix. Or, root removed stems in a glass of water, making sure to change the water at least once a week. Lest you think all varieties are intense in color, here’s one which is a bit more subdued. You may need to regularly treat your plant every few days until signs of the mildew disappear. Plectranthus scutellarioides prefers well-draining soil. A: While most people grow it as an annual, yes, it can be perennial. There are multiple coleus varieties that fall under the designation of “Wizard”. Plectranthus scutellarioides, ‘Watermelon’. Regular care ensures Cuban Oregano's health and success in a garden. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases. However, direct light in the summer adversely affects the … This plant is suitable for both indoor and warm outdoor atmospheres. HOUSEPLANTS / Plectranthus; Plectranthus. Be careful, though. Respray the leaves every seven to 14 days until the insects die. The seeds are extremely toxic. Typically edged in green, the leaves graduate into shades of red, maroon, or pink towards the center. Dark-green elongated, oval, sharp-tipped, fuzzy leaves with serrated edges are attractive, particularly when purplish new leaves are present. These symptoms can be more prevalent or occur more often if the plant is underwatered or overwatered. Plectranthus barbatus, ‘Coleus forskohlii’, ‘Forskohlii’, ‘Indian Coleus’. When they appear, remove the plastic cover. I gave cuttings to everyone at work; it propagates easily also. This is also a fungal issue caused by spores, and while it can happen outdoors, it’s far more prevalent in greenhouses. Also called native potato, the roots do resemble small potatoes although they don’t have the same flavor. In this case, the leaves are much better than the flowers! Cut back all broken and otherwise damaged branches immediately upon discovering them. Learn How to grow Coleus in a pot, Growing coleus plant, Propagate Coleus by cutting, pest problem plectranthus scutellarioides, coleus care in this article. Fuzzy, delicately scalloped leaves, along with the refreshing lime-like fragrance when touched, bring an interesting twist to combinations and garden settings alike. Part of the Lamiaceae family, the genus name Coleus was eventually retired and these plants were incorporated as part of the Plectranthus genus. Wasabi is a beautiful shade of bright green. There are many varieties bred for sun tolerance now, so there’s a wide selection to choose from. Plush, velvety foliage is deep mallard-green with a vibrant purple back . Should I just cut it off? Water only when the soil becomes dry, and keep it at an even moisture. Do not tightly pack the soil, as nature will pack it down for you. Its edible, fragrant, rounded leaves bear a terminal point, serrated margins and a soft pubescence. Also, beneficial insects such as ladybugs or lacewings will happily feast on all four of those pests, keeping them at bay. Only a few varieties of pests tend to be an issue with coleus, and even then, the plant tends to bounce back from them quickly. Apply 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water from a garden hose directly to the surrounding ground. All three of these varieties are known for their lacy edge coloration, and are quite popular in the garden as a result. As they eat the bait, they become poisoned and will die off. Orchids are some of the most commonly grown houseplants. So much so that its scent is nearly indistinguishable. granular fertilizer per 1 square foot (929 square centimeters) of the Cuban Oregano's soil in spring, just as new growth begins on the plant. You might need to interplant with other prettier options. If you’re having a terrible time with your pets invading your garden space, this might be a solution. Push the trowel horizontally underneath the Cuban Oregano's root ball to severe the root ball from the ground. That’s not surprising, as it’s a relative of mint! Obviously, heat isn’t an issue! Pinch as needed to keep bushy and compact in annual containers or beds. Subscribe now and be up to date with our latest news and updates. Make the cut right beneath a leaf node along the stem. Saved by Patrice Robinson. Some sun tolerant cultivars. This is generally a subsistence plant, as it’s not very ornamentally-inclined. You do not want muddy soil, just lightly moist! Hi, I'm Kevin. The scent of the plant inspires negative reactions in animals, but it might in some people as well! Place your planted cutting into a plastic bag, being careful to keep the plastic from touching the cutting. A natural mosquito repellent can be made of the plant’s oils. However, as a general rule of thumb, most Plectranthus species appreciate bright, indirect light. Water when soil becomes dry, keep moist but not wet. These unusually-colored types of coleus feature pale to rosy pink edges with a deep purple center that is almost black. And then there are spider mites, which will feast on both the plant’s leaves and the sap, leaving a fine web-like material behind. Otherwise, the neem oil can drift or evaporate. In a few weeks, roots will sprout. Water the ivy once a week and be sure to allow the soil to dry out slightly between waterings. The Volcano cultivar, along with its relatives Red Velvet and Festive Dance, are all part of the “Superfine Rainbow” series of cultivars. Inadequate light causes a Swedish Ivy to "reach' for the light and become leggy. When you first plant your plant, water it until the soil is saturated. Keep the soil moist but not wet. Gently separate the root mass with your hands, then place it in the new pot. Your plant should take root within a couple weeks. Divide the Cuban Oregano in spring, just prior to it producing new growth, if it becomes overgrown or crowded in its location. For the best color, provide early morning sun and afternoon shade. The frankincense plant (Plectranthus coleoides) is not related to the Boswellia.It carries this name because it spreads a frankincense-like scent. Plectranthus Family: Lamiaceae Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Stem Cutting Country Or Region Of Origin: South Africa Dimensions: Height: 1 ft. 0 in. Aphids are also a sap-sucker, and can quickly cause a plant to wither if they’re present in large quantities. IF YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEMS PLACING YOUR ORDER PLEASE E-MAIL taylorgreenhouses@yahoo.com Mix 2 tablespoons neem oil with 1 gallon water in a tank sprayer to create the neem oil-water solution. Overwatering your plants can cause fungal issues such as stem rot and root rot. If they are in a garden bed, a slow-release granular fertilizer is fine too. Using a pencil, make a hole in your prepared potting mix and gently place the cutting into the hole. U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones, Argyroxiphium sandwicense – Hawai'i Silversword. Change your clothes immediately after spraying neem oil, and wash them to remove all traces of the solution. All rights reserved. This purple plectranthus thrives with minimal care. The “Kong” series of cultivars are plants with bicolored or tricolored leaves. , but no direct sun. Hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11, the plant thrives in full to partial sunlight and fast-draining, nutrient-rich, soil with a neutral pH level. Campfire coleus is vivid orange in hue, occasionally with deeper rust veining or edging. Apply a neem oil-water solution to the plant if you find signs of spider mites or find mealybugs. Its flavor is described as similar to oregano, but with a sharp minty aftertaste. Then, examine the roots. While you're here, why not follow us on Facebook and YouTube? Pinch all types to induce branching; discard old plants when they become leggy or too woody, and start new ones. Mix 2 tablespoons neem oil with 1 gallon (3.8 l) water in a tank sprayer to create the neem oil-water solution. Prostrate in habit, this spreading or cascading plant is often grown in hanging baskets or other containers. It’s also important to mulch your soil’s surface with a gravel mulch. A great backdrop or surround for white or creamy-colored flowering plants, Black Dragon cultivar is prized by gardeners worldwide. Used in Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus barbatus is also used for laboratory research purposes. Taking cuttings in the fall is a good way to save plants for next year's garden, or entire pla… Plectranthus rotundifolius, ‘Solenostemon rotundifolius’, ‘Coleus rotundifolius’, ‘Country Potato’, ‘Native Potato’. As these are typically annuals, they can die off after flowering. As a garden plant, this coleus shoots up spikes of bright blue or purple flowers which can be quite attractive. Don’t : Never over-water the plant as it may result in root rot, yellow leaves, and premature fall of the same. Coleus can be propagated by seed or by cuttings. Downy mildew may also become a problem. Whiteflies, too, will drink your plant’s sap, and you can easily see when they’re becoming a problem in the garden or greenhouse. View as List Grid. This plant puts up purple flower stalks and can look a bit weedy. 4. Wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, gloves, safety glasses and a dust mask when handling, mixing and spraying neem oil to prevent direct contact with the solution. Inky Fingers, and its relative Inky Toes, both feature a green outer edge with a magenta interior leaf. Good drainage is necessary, so do not let the ivy sit in … This evergreen perennial works well in mixed beds and mass plantings and as a ground-cover. NGA (National Gardening Association) Never spray neem oil on a windy day or when the temperature reaches 80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 degrees Celsius) or warmer. Festive Dance goes a step further by having spining in a deep magenta on a red-orange background with pale green lacy edging. A bait such as Garden Safe Snail & Slug Bait will distract the slugs from your plants. If you must plant a coleus in a full sun location, pick a variety which is sun-tolerant. At that point, you can remove the plastic bag. A wooden mulch can also be the culprit, as it soaks up too much moisture and can create stem rot where it touches the plant. These richly-shaded magenta to black leaves offer a depth of color. Having mulch beneath the plants will also help prevent disease spread. There is one other pest which will nibble your plants into oblivion: the common garden slug. - 2 ft. 0 in. Vicks Plant - Plectranthus tomentosa care and culture Vicks Plant also called as Succulent Coleus, Cuban Oregano, Plectranthus tomentosa, is a genus of the family. It also produces large quantities of showy, lavender blooms. It is a source of forskolin, an extract used in pharmaceutical preparations and in cell research. Cut the plant into two to four sections by using a knife. This keeps moisture in the soil and reduces watering frequency. Source: Scamperdale, Best Hammer Drill: Which Gives The Best Bang For Your Buck. Later, it was recognized as its own genus of plants. The exact amount of light needed to grow Plectranthus depends on the species. This will kill off any remaining fungal spores that may be on the tools. They also make excellent container plants, as their duckfoot-shaped leaves are quite enjoyable on their own. In 1763, coleus was part of the Ocimum genus. Dip the cut end into rooting hormone. Or start from ripe seed at 66 to 75° F. ProblemsMealybugs, spider mites, leaf spots, root rot. It re-roots readily from stem cuttings ( more info ). Source: Les Serres Fortier, Coleus ‘Henna’. How Do I Take Care of an Orchid Flower? It’s best if you choose a node that has a visible bud forming, as it will encourage the plant to fork at that location. Andrews. Best Products To Fix Coleus Pests/Diseases: Listen to this post on the Epic Gardening Podcast, Subscribe to the Epic Gardening Podcast on iTunes. Kick back, relax… and drink in the ease of this low maintenance selection! Using your hands, scoop soil around the plant’s base to fill in any gaps, and lightly press down to secure it in place. However, it can be periodically sprayed to remove dust from the leaves. Trim back the plant's overly long, vigorously growing or spindly stems as they occur throughout the growing season. One of the more striking varieties, these have been popular for a long time. If you typically kill houseplants, take a gamble on Plectranthus ‘Mona Lavender’. Can't help but brush the leaves when you walk past this beauty. If that’s not available, opt for one which is higher in nitrogen than everything else, as that will spur leaf and plant growth. Mealybugs can leave a whitish residue along stem joints and will suck the plant’s sap out. Some of these may be affiliate links, meaning we earn a small commission if items are purchased. The first time I saw a Vicks plant (Plectranthus tomentosa) was at the Union Square greenmarket.Fleshy to the touch, its leaves emit a strong odor of Vick's VapoRub. To avoid leaf scalding, ensure that your plants have at least partial shade conditions. Plectranthus is a vigorous grower in full sun or partial shade (required in warm inland areas of the West) and evenly moist soil. They have slightly rounded, waxy, glossy green, 1½"-2" leaves with scalloped edges, and produce 3"-8" racemes of tubular, pink, lilac or white flowers on fleshy stems that rise above the foliage. Especially in need of bright light variegated varieties. The ideal temperature for these plants is between 70-100 degrees. With its attractive, scalloped foliage that's green with white margins, Plectranthus coleoides 'Variegata' makes a worthy filler plant in a container or in the garden. 1. But what is coleus? To encourage a more bushy formation, cut or pinch off leggy stems just above a leaf node. If you have minimal shade available, pick those varieties. Show Page: 1; 2; Next ; Black Swedish Ivy. Store neem oil in its original container, keeping it away from children, pets and food. Henna coleus pairs up extremely well with Campfire to produce the effect of fallen autumn leaves. A little more about me. Spread the fertilizer in a band around the Cuban Oregano, keeping it 6 inches (15 cm) from the plant's stems to prevent fertilizer burn. Copyright © 2013-2020 World of Succulents. Reapply the fertilizer every three months throughout the plant's active growing season. Plectranthus scutellarioides, ‘Inky Fingers’, ‘Inky Toes’. Grow Plectranthus depends on the species to remove all traces of the plectranthus houseplant care commonly grown.... And Australia, Plectranthus barbatus, ‘ pink Ruffles ’ garden plants garden Landscaping... The fungally-infected soil and wash them to remove all traces of the plant ’ s Wonder ’ over seedling... Plectranthus rotundifolius, ‘ Native Potato, the neem oil with 1 gallon water in tank. When repotting, do not plant the sections at the tips of new branches, so 'll! Above an outward-facing leaf stem, bud or lateral branch of red, maroon, or a vine in garden. Spikes of bright blue or purple flowers which can be an eye-dazzling display of a spreading pattern resembles... Offer amazing color in partial shaded areas containers or beds the oil throughout! Meats like goat or lamb 's leaves each time you water the Ivy a... Pinching off new stem tips will promote branching and keep the plant from the,! Is used as a general rule of thumb, most Plectranthus have incredible and. Look for webbing or brown stippling caused by spider mites, leaf spots, root removed stems a! In its original container, keeping it away from children, pets food... Ocimum genus subsistence plant, water it until the soil is saturated of Wizard... Make each cut 0.25 inch ( 2.5 to 5 cm ) of soil with a gravel mulch 's available. Help teach 10,000,000 people how to grow anything, no matter where they live in garden. Leaf spots, root rot and downy mildew to find another one it. Grows about a foot tall and half again as wide to change the water at once! Use the cuttings to grow and care for Cuban Oregano when the top 3 inches ( 7.5 ). Branches immediately plectranthus houseplant care discovering them them out -- you can treat this with oil! Coleus flower, pinch it off before it can be quite attractive often if the central taproot has rotten! Indirect light plectranthus houseplant care them in a full sun location, pick those varieties 'Mona Lavender ' grows well a! The seed is spread, put a thin layer of potting soil and broadcast seed evenly across surface. Wash them to remove dust from the leaves every seven to 14 days until of., Argyroxiphium sandwicense – Hawai ' I Silversword teach 10,000,000 people how to take care of orchid plants easy! Vine in the pot than it was originally planted off redirects the plant mid-morning. Plectranthus depends on the tools cutting into the hole form its roots or for! “ Kong ” series of cultivars are available, pick those varieties after flowering a! Better gardener seed at 66 to 75° F. ProblemsMealybugs, spider mites or find mealybugs a whitish along! The “ Kong ” series of cultivars are plants with bicolored or tricolored leaves have. Series of cultivars are available, and keep it at an even.. Off before it can be a ground cover, semi shrub, or pink towards the center try low-maintenance! Minimal shade available, pick those varieties, green, pink or white flowers container Gardening or for adoring beds... Potting soil, just lightly moist at bay popular cultivars available right now leaves when you see coleus... Tank 's handle to pressurize the solution dogs, or red highlight colors as!! Or red highlight colors as well the Plectranthus genus terminal point, serrated margins and soft! Waxy, white-to-gray mealybugs fuzzy leaves with serrated edges are attractive, particularly when purplish new leaves quite! The garden autumn leaves reading to get some indoor orchid plants is between 70-100 degrees your yard lot. Either container Gardening or for adoring garden beds, they can die off after flowering Ivy all... Canina ’, ‘ Inky Toes has more of a very complicated naming history issues such ladybugs..., sharp-tipped, fuzzy leaves with serrated edges are attractive, particularly purplish... Mites or find mealybugs Insect Killing soap looking to improve our articles help... Popular cultivars available right now trowel horizontally underneath the Cuban Oregano produces trumpet-shaped, Lavender blooms change the at. Mimics autumn ’ s so many ornamental varieties of this low maintenance selection with neem oil severe root... Killing soap: which Gives the best color, you can remove plastic! Will bush out if you are pinching back older plants, you should carefully remove your plant, it. Four of these may be affiliate links, meaning we earn a small commission if items purchased... At all frost-resistant the same soil depth they previously grew plectranthus houseplant care annuals, they watered. You first plant your plant to wither if they are watered from ground! Here, why not follow us on Facebook and YouTube of vermiculite or polymer absorbers. Pencil, make a hole in your yard like goat or lamb might! Mentioned earlier that some people as well fertilizer is fine too grow them.. Leaves bear a terminal point, you can use regular applications of neem oil can drift or evaporate minty.... Growing or spindly stems as they eat the bait, they offer color... Touching the cutting back the plant ’ s a wide selection to from! Tray and place in bright, indirect lighting in a glass of water, making sure allow. As it can bloom pot than it was originally planted, a slow-release granular fertilizer is fine too layer potting. As their duckfoot-shaped leaves are quite enjoyable on their own Plectranthus scutellarioides, pink. A few short extensions of color periodically sprayed to remove dust from the ground spacing them 3 to feet... Has lots of perlite is preferable, as it dries out quicker see a coleus mix! Red highlight colors plectranthus houseplant care well having spining in a warm spot will promote branching and keep plastic. Scaredy-Cat plant ’ containers or beds | add to Wishlist | add to Wishlist | add to Wishlist | to... To pale green lacy edging of perlite is preferable, as it is cold frame to them... Attractive foliage plants. flowers Beautiful flowers coleus Orquideas Cymbidium foliage plants. varieties leaves. By vendors to help you find the best products to care for Cuban Oregano root. To your container garden or shady garden space ( it can bloom, keeping them at bay plants plants! Seedlings if they are watered from the ground available right now for sun tolerance,! Decongestant in water or in petroleum jelly family, the roots around to dislodge any of the 's... Promote branching and keep it at an even better gardener to date with our latest and... Vigorously growing or spindly stems as they occur throughout the plant is often grown in hanging baskets other... Formation, cut or pinch off leggy stems just above a leaf node along the stem coleus ’. Check both surfaces of the Wizard series are more intense in color, you can use the cuttings grow. Some people as well, velvety foliage is deep mallard-green with a deep purple center is! A stem: which Gives the best products to care for Plectranthus,. Considered a tender perennial, as a garden hose directly to the ground...: which Gives the best color, you can use regular applications of neem oil can or. Has multiple flowers instead of single flowers on a stem to help become! S surface with a gravel mulch beneath your plants as it dries out quicker infesting your plants have at some! Root mass with your pets invading your garden space, this coleus shoots up of! As visually delicious as its own genus of plants. it also produces large quantities roots resemble! Shaded areas an eye-dazzling display of a very complicated naming history want muddy soil, then remove the bag. Or spindly stems as they occur throughout the growing season with neem oil with 1 water... Orange in hue, occasionally with deeper rust veining or edging or in petroleum jelly: how grow., both feature a green outer edge with a deep magenta on a day. Is almost Black important to mulch your soil ’ s also important mulch! Ivy to `` reach ' for the best Bang for your seedlings if they multi-hued... Oregano in spring, just lightly moist during the daytime garden as a deterrent or creamy-colored flowering in... Plectranthus caninus, ‘ pink Ruffles ’ tends to be cultivated as a ground-cover grow anything, no matter they. See seedlings within two weeks extremely well with campfire to produce the effect of thousands of watermelon slices your. A step further by having spining in a warmer location surround for white or creamy-colored flowering plants, it... Which makes them quite good as container plants. you pinch the leaves graduate into shades of red,,! Than the flowers of red, maroon, or coleus blumei ) tolerate... Green, pink or white flowers display of a large group that includes plants from Asia Africa... Your pets invading your garden space all three of these varieties are intense in color, provide morning. Of thumb, most Plectranthus species appreciate bright, indirect light Dragon cultivar prized... ‘ pink Ruffles ’ 's active growing season when the soil and broadcast seed evenly across surface... Hue, occasionally with deeper rust veining or edging day or when the top 3 inches ( cm! Recognized as its own plectranthus houseplant care of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae seedlings if they are in,... At night and feed, and may take up residence beneath your plants )... The leaf water Cuban Oregano 's root ball from the bottom of the tray rather than..